# 6 Towards an evolutionary process

** The evolution of physical laws**

We now need to think a little more deeply about the potential "evolution" of the physical laws and "constants" that define how these physical laws interact. At this stage In the thinking process I will only discuss the ideas in the most general way.

The first part of this process is to stress the fact that it is important to bear in mind the physics underlying the way our universe operates. Quantum mechanical uncertainty defines a “veil” of space and time within which we cannot observe individual events but only observe the collective results of what is going on behind the veil. These results are described with great precision by the mathematics of quantum field theory. The basic mathematics of this involves integrals of wave functions over all of space and time (within the universe) describing in a probabilistic way the positions and motions of particles that can be observed outside of the veil of uncertainty. Within this veil almost anything that is allowed can (and possibly does) happen.

The very success of the pure mathematics of quantum field theory has to an extent hidden the physical insights underlying the origins of quantum mechanics from more recent generations of mathematical physicists. Let us go back to the early origins of quantum theory and consider the original de Broglie model of the Hydrogen atom which led to the full development of quantum theory.

This showed that the electron orbitals of the isolated hydrogen atom were essentially "cavity resonances" of the electron De Broglie wavelength. This is an experimentally observable wave property of electrons that is defined by the electron's momentum. Considering an electron as a particle "orbiting" the nucleus under electrostatic attraction it is clear that under certain conditions the De Broglie wavelength will resonate with the orbital period. Quantum uncertainty adds "noise" to this process resulting in the familiar statistical spread of the orbitals determined by the results of quantum electrodynamics. The process of adding in this noise involves infinite integrals over all of space and time. Following this sort of dynamic analysis to more complex atoms gets extremely difficult particularly as energies get higher and momenta get relativistic.

High energy nucleon interactions producing mesons were also originally viewed as resonances producing subatomic particles that were metastable.

All this was superseded by the mathematical simplification of the Dirac notation and quantum electro and chromo dynamics. This takes these infinite integrals over all of space and time (within the universe) as symbols that can be manipulated. This has tended to hide the underlying physical principles of these integrals from succeeding generations of quantum physicists.

String theory also sees particles as resonances in waves that create persistent effects. What I am trying to illustrate is that there are "physical" processes going on inside the uncertainty veil, which produce longer term observable effects. Current teaching of quantum mechanics tends to ignore this physical background in favour of the much more precise and successful pure mathematical quantum field theory.

**Aside, the case of boundary restrictions**

There is also an interesting aside here as far as our universe is concerned. Although for isolated particles interacting in an empty universe the integrals are infinite there are some conditions where there may be boundary conditions. This can be seen in the Casimir effect (qv) where conducting plates exclude a full range of electromagnetic waves. This in effect because causes a very small attractive effect between the plates because of the fuller range of frequencies allowed outside of the gap. Now there is a limit to space and time defined by the age of our universe and the velocity of light. This sets a lower limit on the frequency of any wave in our universe. This is probably not significant for electromagnetic interactions but gravitational interactions on very large scales in our universe could easily include frequencies below this limit and this could have an effect on dark matter and dark energy in the same way that electromagnetic wells restrict the range of frequencies and give rise to spectral lines and resonances in atomic and nuclear spectra. Some examples of this process in the very early universe have been seen in some of the structures in the cosmic microwave background (ref. needed here).

This is a good example that it is important to keep in mind the fact that we live in a physical universe and not a strictly mathematical one, even though mathematics vital to support the modelling of the underlying physics. All mathematical the models that we use have limits of validity associated with them because of the need to simplify things to make the mathematics tractable. These limits must not be forgotten. This is well accepted in very extreme conditions but must also not be forgotten in very slow interactions involving billions of years.

Similarly, real and potential interaction processes can make their presence felt in interactions before a process is fully established for example in the onset of turbulence in a fluid flow around a small obstruction in a much deeper and larger smooth flowing stream.

### The nature of our physical laws and the constants that determine their interaction.

The values of the critical physical constants are often described as a result of "random" symmetry breaking as the universe cools from its initial extremely hot conditions. However physical experience shows that in real life when symmetries are broken in this way what happens is usually far from random, often producing structure of great order, because of the interactions of the particles involved. A good example of this is crystallisation. This also applies in the quantum world. Even a glassy transition to a semi random and chaotic but stable structure has order in it. What I am trying to say is the laws that we observe are not the result of random but resonant processes that effectively extend the time for which any structures associated with underlying interaction probabilities exist for long enough to be observed outside of the veil of the uncertainty principle. The suggestion therefore is that the processes that will be favoured as things settle out are the ones that will extend interaction longevity the greatest. That is resonant and or recycling processes. This creates an evolutionary drive in physical processes that may be initially seen to be purely random. It also fits well with the mathematical process that calculates the probabilities of various observations happening.

Mathematics is and always will be a powerful tool for analysis and synthesis. However it does have limitations in that physical process simplifications always have to be made to the model to allow the process to be modeled. A good example of this can be seen in "string theory" in which an arbitrary concept of a resonant vibrating string is used to replace the concept of point particles. This has produced a vast array of potential models which could possibly result in a universe like ours but it says nothing about the nature of the "string", which is essentially the simplest concept after a point and it allows awkward infinities to be avoided. All this work is good but it will need some sort of physical insight to point the way towards the more likely models. I would like to suggest that the simplest physical insight is that of a local space-time vortex creating a linear structure along its axis. This could initially be conceived considering gravitationally driven vortices in space time along classical lines similar to the de Broglie resonant electrons and that the development of a concept of relativistic space time computational fluid dynamics could prove interesting.

### Real and Imaginary Concepts

The main mathematics of quantum field theory operates using imaginary or complex numbers and in order to return the probability of a particular quantum event it is required convert them back to real numbers. Wave theory and standard engineering understand these arise from oscillatory or repetitive processes. This could be a hint to the nature of the underlying nature of the physical processes behind the mathematics. Please note I am not in any way implying that there is any sort of absolute solution which gets rid of the probabilistic nature of the quantum processes but that like the original De Broglie there are underlying resonant drivers involved.

**6 Recapitulation**

This concludes the bald statement of the concept that I wish to communicate. Before going on to look how these ideas may cause observable effects I will recapitulate the basic concepts.

The collapse of even a stellar mass black hole inside its event horizon can produce enough energy to create an entire universe as large and complex as ours. It is seeded with particles from our universe and there will be a tendency for physical laws to be similar. It is logical to consider that the universe created by this collapse will be in some way dependant on the nature of the collapse process. The critical initial collapse of a stellar mass black hole is probably quite precisely defined leading to a reasonably precisely defined final structure for "new" universes.

The critical constants in the universe arise out of important resonances in the interaction of the fields involved. It is to be expected that as with the processes in life, marginal stability is important to enable this evolutionary process. It is also possible that the ranges of the short range forces notably the strong, weak and quantum uncertainty could fit with this model.

There are also some important new facts. The small structure that collapsed to form the large new universe as seen from the point of view of the particles in the new universe, still exists and is a fundamental part of that universe, that is, the universe is simultaneously very large and very small at the same time. Accepting this as a simple fact helps to solve some of the peculiar features of quantum mechanics like entanglement, which can just be seen as essentially "instantaneous" phase changes in the small recycling dimensions even though in the large dimensions they may be separated by large distances.

Because of this notion the time dimension with its two complex compactified dimensions existing throughout the universe in the moment NOW contains in effect half the total energy of the universe it also explains the large excess of dark energy on the universe.

7 Could there be any observational confirmation of these ideas

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