# New Physical Thinking in Cosmology

## Preface Thinking about cosmology

Mankind has always wondered about cosmology. Early man was well aware of his place in nature and his dependence on his environment. This instilled a respect for the variable environment and a desire for stability and continuity.

The important development of storytelling as a societal bond led to many sorts of behavioral and origin myths. As the complexity of society developed with the discovery of agriculture and social groups became more static this became more critical and the more detailed observations of the indicators of seasonal changes together with a desire to understand and possibly control them led to various forms of religion. These were generally based on various forms of a generalised life force, controlling deity and/or recycling and rebirth. This development often involved the inclusion and development of the deep creation myths. This served the development of the complexity of society for many centuries.

The development of science in more recent times showed that the earth and life had changed and evolved through time cut across these myths and there was strong resistance to them before their general acceptance today. We are now aware that we have a discontinuity in our cosmology with a clear origin and an indeterminate end for our universe. This raises similar questions. There is a strong desire to find some way to explain our origins and resign ourselves to an inevitable end but much of the essential information to prove things scientifically is hidden from us by definition.

A totally theoretical approach is also rather unsatisfactory as it is unscientific in that produces results that are unprovable. So a new approach may be needed. To go beyond the limits set by our own universe it could well be worth considering the continuity aspects of ancient myth.

There must be a process for the creation of universes and as they eventually die and fade away this must be a repetitive process. The strong tendency is to say that this process is random but if any one random universe contained a process by which it could spawn similar universes it would rapidly dominate. This is where the story starts. The introduction now looks at this idea from a slightly different angle.

## Introduction

Many books describe how finely balanced the laws of physics have to be to allow a universe like ours containing long lived entities and developing complexity that allows galaxies stars and even life like us to exist. One approach is to assume that if at the initial incident the laws settled out randomly there must be many other universes existing in isolation with ours in some sort of multiverse.

Of course there is the easy get out that it was created with purpose by a God but going back to the old story of the flat earth supported by elephants on a giant turtle it must be Gods or turtles all the way down! That is proposing a creator leads to the obvious problem of what created the creator.

The other obvious possibility is to take a Darwinian approach and suggest that it might have evolved that way by a succession of universes through a vast period of time. At first sight that seems to be about as improbable as all the other ideas because it seems that a universe as big as ours must be created by something bigger and more powerful but that may not be the case.

Let us step back again in time to think about the first discovery of the electromagnetic nature of matter as we experience it in everyday life. When electrons and protons were conceived as pure point sources of charge and an inverse square law led to the possibility of the infinite release of energy in their interactions. This was eventually shown to be prevented by the discovery of quantum mechanics. Following this train of thought, heroic efforts are being made in both theoretical and practical physical research to find a way of developing a quantum theory of gravity which has the same problem the possibility of releasing an infinite quantity of energy by simple collapse under inverse square law gravity towards a mathematical singularity.

The problem then is that theoretical approaches will without some practical boundary conditions will produce ALL the possible ways of doing this and a vast number of possible solutions has been found. The boundary conditions also require observations at energy levels way beyond our current capabilities of we are at something of an impasse.

However It follows therefore that the energy release inside any gravitational collapse inside a black hole’s impervious event horizon may be the source of a universe as large and as complex as ours. This concept could lead to some ways that might lead us to an evolutionary theory of cosmology and because our own observable universe had a universe that created it and it will also be creating other universes it might even lead us to some experimental observations and theoretical models that could strengthen the probability that this is true even if it cannot produce an absolute proof.

This concept produces a new approach to cosmology and a theory of everything that might allow the theoreticians to identify a preferred initial study route from the vast number they have already created during their work. The practical physicists could also identify some experiments that may help to put this cosmological concept on a firmer footing or punch through to a new area of research if these initial concepts are proved wrong.

This problem has happened in this field before when the proof of a universe that was changing with time killed off the very attractive "continuous creation" (with no solid evidence for the process that enabled it) cosmology.

Let us therefore explore this concept in more detail.

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**Some important initial concepts that are generally accepted**

**These will form part of the thought process that leads to an evolutionary cosmology**

** Our Universe**

- We accept that our universe originated in a rapid and very smooth expansion of space some 13.7 billion years ago and the matter and energy in it are very carefully balanced to ensure that is very close to a flat geometry and neither closed or open although there are some signs of a modest increase in its expansion rate in more recent periods
- Because of the expansion of space there can be no location for its origin.
- However we do have a very specific time rather than a totally relativistic universe.
- In theory a clock could be set going at this moment and create a special time reference for our universe
- This creates a very special moment that is common throughout every instant in the universe which I will call the moment
**"Now!" **this moment is held in common throughout the universe however particles/waves accelerate and decelerate and includes massless particles/waves travelling at the speed of light.
- This concept is not often discussed because it is essentially unobservable except if one was at this moment
**"Now!" **physically but this cannot be because it is incredibly small and totally hidden by the uncertainty principle and the Quantum mechanical vacuum.
- We can only approach observing it in our high energy physics particle collision experiments.

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** Quantum Mechanics and Gravity**

- Much is made of the peculiarities of Quantum mechanics notably entanglement and superposition Richard Feynman's approach was to say "don't try to understand it get down and calculate" the equations work.
- Our latest thinking on these ideas string theories, superficially require quite a lot more dimensions than we see in our universe and the assumptions these are compactified this is illustrated by showing space as a grid with lots of tiny "balls of string" of the extra dimensions on each grid position and there is much talk of the mathematical concept of calabi yau manifolds of multidimensional geometry. However just thinking of normal dimensions a complex involving oscillations gets the multidimensional aspect along the way.
- The one thing that is not mentioned is the fact that the "instantaneous" resolution of superpositions over large distances of space implies that these spaces are co-located that is that all the little balls of string are effectively in the same place. How can this be achieved? more later
- Quantum gravity must include geometry into the calculation deciding which geometry or range of geometries rapidly takes us to the limits of our mathematical understanding. what goes on inside black holes will clearly get to these limits eventually. This fact does not deny us the possibility of pushing our current experimental knowledge as far as possible.
- It may even be possible that most of the process does not require quantum gravity and the final breakdown will tell us the answer to our geometry problems

**Black holes**

- There is no reason to believe that the laws of physics change radically the instant that any particle crosses a gravitational event horizon of the type that is likely to form in our universe. This means that the inverse square law of gravity will continue to apply as the horizon is crossed.
- What does happen inside the event horizon is, that space becomes "time like" and unidirectional (in the absence of any interactions) as a particle heads towards the theoretical "singularity". Ref RTR
- Time also becomes "space like" in that it becomes multidimensional and potentially oscillatory as the gravitational field gradient increases. Ref RTR
- Under an inverse square law simple integration shows that the energy released by every reduction of 50% in the radius of a thin shell of constant mass is a constant. This tends to infinity as the radius approaches zero.
- The process of collapse in the absence of interactions takes a short but finite time but under the conditions of the collapse a vast number of interactions between particles can take place in this time. Interactions between particles and notably the presence of angular momentum, will extend the longevity of this process of collapse.
- The conditions during the collapse may be extreme, but they are relatively mild compared with the sort of energies that have been explored using the LHC and many other high energy experiments. many reports suggest the LHC is showing the laws of Physics nanoseconds or less after the "Big Bang".
- As the gravitational field and gradients increase without limit time "expands" in all directions, from the point of view of the particles.
- Existing high energy physics knowledge will allow this process to be simulated and followed for a significant time period before our understanding breaks down and quantum gravity will dominate. However the conditions will help define boundary conditions for quantum gravity theories in terms of gravitational resonances at a tiny scale as in the origin of Quantum Mechanics.
- It is generally accepted that all black holes are of the Kerr type because they WILL contain some residual angular momentum this means that their final state is a ring singularity with a single dimension of space but will retain a certain dimensional freedom in the remaining dimensions of time

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### Matter and Antimatter

- All matter particles come in two forms, these are normal matter and antimatter
- An antimatter particle is identical to a matter particle with ALL its properties (including motion and time) reversed i.e. the antimatter particle of a negatively charged electron is a positively charged positron traveling in the opposite direction
**backwards** through time.
- When a matter particle meets and interacts with an antimatter particle of the same type the result is pure energy notably a pair of photons (themselves an entangled particle and antiparticle) for low energy interactions. High energy interactions offer a wide range of possibilities as in results with the Large LEP collider
- Our universe is dominated by normal matter with one exception. The exception are the Neutrinos who are all antineutrinos because all the "weak interaction" particle interactions that produce neutrinos produce antineutrinos.
- High energy particle interactions, notably matter antimatter collisions, can produce new particles but these are always produced in pairs one matter and one antimatter.
- The reason for the imbalance between matter and antimatter in our universe is as yet unexplained except that there is a very slight imbalance between matter and antimatter in certain high energy interactions and it is currently assumed that at the instant of the 'big bang" equal quantities of matter and antimatter are produced. Recent measurements make this imbalance very small if it exists at all.
- To offer an alternative approach Neil Turock has suggested that universes may occur in pairs isolated from each other one as a matter universe and one as an antimatter universe Ref 2
- In a particle pair production event A matter particle travelling with a particular energy in a particular direction is created and an antimatter particle travelling in the opposite direction travelling backwards through time. That is all the properties are reversed including the flow of time and collapse to a “singularity“ to an expansion from a “singularity”.
- This leads to the thought that the energy release during gravitational collapse in a matter universe like ours could be converted into a big bang expansion in an antimatter universe. Of course the opposite could be true that is our "big bang" universe was created by the energy release in the collapse inside an event horizon in an antimatter dominated universe running with time in the opposite direction.

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### Dimensionality

### The Dimensionality of a potentially metastable and long lived universe

**This is an important paper on this topic**

The relationship between the dimensionality of a universe and its behavior are discussed in the paper

“On the dimensionality of space-time” By Max Tegmark http://space.mit.edu/home/tegmark/dimensions.pdf

He looks at the possible dimensionalities of universes and suggests that extended universes with three dimensions of space and one of time are the only ones that really work but he also finds another odd case of a universe with one dimension of space and three of time inhabited with Tachyons as a possibility. Now Tachyons are particles that always travel faster than light i.e. backwards in time so this could be a universe with one dimension of space and three dimensions of time inhabited by antiparticles of the universe "We are here" with three normal dimensions of space and one of time like ours.

Now this happens also to be exactly the same at the compact final state of a Kerr Black hole with its ring singularity as described above in **Black holes 9** There is absolutely no reason why both of these types of universes could exist together as a pair

### Waves orbits and orbitals

One further aspect of dimensionality that is often ignored is that its long term and evolutionary structure is dependant on cyclic processes which are normally determined in terms of Complex numbers expressed in the amplitude and phase in the cycle. That is each of the dimensions has two complex components as does Quantum theory. With three dimensions there may be some possibility of Hypercomplexity in the numbers but that will not be discussed in this note.

## Putting these ideas together

- Let us now consider the possibility that our "big bang" universe was driven by the collapse of part of an antimatter dominated universe inside the event horizon of a Kerr black hole formed by the collapse of an antimatter star at the end of its life.
- Looking at the properties of this "two part universe" results in som remarkable parallels with our own universe, this in turn increases the confidence that this might be a significant breakthrough in cosmology but it also suggests ways in which it may be verified by experimental evidence. Clearly it appears unlikely that an absolute proof will be possible. but detailed modelling of the critical collapse process may help.
- This Kerr black hole is clearly tiny and locked away in our universe inside our normal linear dimension of time. In fact it exists in this unobservable moment
**"Now!" **
- The universe consists of 6 potentially complex dimensions that is 12 dimensions in all. 3 complex dimensions of space/time two complex dimensions of time/space and one common episodic dimension of time/space
- Many of the favoured string theories are eleven dimensional
- These dimensions are sufficient to explain quantum mechanics and string theory because in this moment of time all particles share the same conceptual space and time.
- It renders the problem of the compactified dimensions in string theory by putting them in a multidimensional time.
- It is clear that the compact half of the universe contains as much mass/energy as our current universe and this explains why more than 50% of our universe consists of dark energy.
- The Dirac equation for an electron. The most accurately proved equation in science created the need for the existence of antimatter and what is more than that the existence of a fillrd domain of antimatter in which antimatter visible in our universe is in effect "holes" in the sea of antimatter.
- It seems likely that a similar process will solve the problem of "ghost particles" in string theory.
- The gravitational energy structure around a ring singularity has a pole at the centre and falls to a minimum at the ring singularity and increases again further away this matches the proposed Higgs field that creates the mass of particles
- The gravitational energy structure around a ring singularity has a peak at the centre and falls to a minimum at the ring singularity and increases again further away this matches the proposed Higgs field that creates the mass of particles
- The reversal of the arrow of time in the transition from collapse in an expanded matter to an expanding antimatter universe solves the problem of the second law of thermodynamic and introduces in effect a continuous expansion scenario.
- The process of particle creation during the collapse produces a strong cooling effect as energy as converted into matter so instead of the effective temperature increasing without limit it is stabilised producing an albeit very rapid but relatively smooth and cool expanding universe eliminating the need for new inflation forces.
- The main driver for the final expansion will probably be the creation of massive stable particles that interact only by gravity. Other theorists have models for these particles and suggest that the may have been detected. one candidate is essentially a stable black unit hole with spin showing fermionic repulsion. I would call this particle the Gravitino the first of the supersymmetric particles. The important thing is that at the energy level at which the collapse creates them they should be able to exhibit this because they have not got too relativistic in their velocities

### Important References

**Ref RTR The Road To Reality By Roger Penrose**

By far the most readable advanced maths trextbook.

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Under construction beyond here.

### Wave Particle Duality

The concept of particles simplifies the mathematics of interactions greatly and is therefore very useful but it is clear that all particles and even larger groupings can show wave like properties. The big question is which “if any” is fundamental.

With electromagnetic radiation at low frequencies the wave equations are obviously the way to go but the particle approach becomes better as the wavelength becomes shorter and the quanta more energetic around the optical frequencies but where structures are on the scale of waves they can extend much further up the spectrum as in X-ray diffraction also high energy physics has considered particles to be “cavity resonances” of the matter waves so for individual high energy interactions waves seem clearly do dominate.

### Information Theoretical Considerations

We have been communicating using electromagnetic radiation for many years and the fundamental limits of the information carrying capacity of signals using this mode of communication have been very well researched. The main symbol rate is determined by. The time-bandwidth product, phase accuracy, and noise level.

### Potentially Useful analogies

Note These are some facts from other scientific and technological areas that I feel may be useful when it comes to understanding cosmology, gravitation and quantum theory may be unified in a realistic way.

# A Philosophical Approach

Observational and experimental science tells is clearly that we live in a universe that is causal and understandable wit consistent structures of stable atoms forming many soys of objects according to well defined physical laws.

- That implies that a gravitationally collapsing universe could be converted into an expanding universe by going from being matter dominated to antimatter dominated and the laws of thermodynamics would bot be violated

If the two particle collide with very high energies the resulting energy cloud can “condense” into many particles. This process forms the main method of exploring physics at high energies and ephemeral particles.

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