# Is an Evolutionary Cosmology Possible?

## Introduction

Many books describe how finely balanced the laws of physics have to be to allow a universe like ours containing long lived entities and developing complexity that allows galaxies stars and even life like us to exist. One approach is to assume that if at the initial incident the laws settled out randomly there must be many other universes existing in isolation with ours in some sort of multiverse.

Of course there is the easy get out that it was created with purpose by a God but going back to the old story of the flat earth supported by elephants on a giant turtle it must be Gods or turtles all the way down! That is proposing a creator leads to the obvious problem of what created the creator

The other obvious possibility is to take a Darwinian approach and suggest that it might have evolved that way by a succession of universes through time. At first sight that seems to be about as improbable as all the other ideas because it seems that a universe as big as ours must be created by something bigger and more powerful but that may not be the case.

Let us step back again in time to think about the first discovery of the electromagnetic nature of matter as we experience it in everyday life. When electrons and protons were conceived as pure point sources of charge and an inverse square law led to the possibility of the infinite release of energy in their interactions. This was eventually shown to be prevented by the discovery of quantum mechanics. Following this train of thought heroic efforts are being made in both theoretical and practical physical research to find a way of developing a quantum theory of gravity which has the same problem the possibility of releasing an infinite quantity of energy by simple collapse under inverse square law gravity towards a mathematical singularity. The problem is that theoretical approaches will without some practical boundary conditions will produce ALL the possible ways of doing this and a vast number of possible solutions has been found. The boundary conditions also require observations at energy levels way beyond our current capabilities of we are at something of an impasse.

However It follows therefore that the energy release inside any gravitational collapse inside a black hole may be the source of a universe as large and as complex as ours. This concept could lead to some ways that might lead us to an evolutionary theory of cosmology and because our own observable universe had a universe that created it and it will also be creating other universes it might even lead us to some experimental observations and theoretical models that could strengthen the probability that this is true even if it cannot produce an absolute proof.

This concept produces a new approach to cosmology and a theory of everything that might allow the theoreticians to identify a preferred initial study route from the vast number they have already created during their work. The practical physicists to identify some experiments that may help to put this cosmological concept on a firmer footing or punch through to a new area of research if these initial concepts are proved wrong.

This problem has happened in this field before when the proof of a universe that was changing with time killed off the very attractive "continuous creation" (with no solid evidence for the process that enabled it) cosmology.

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**Some important initial concepts that are generally accepted**

**These will form part of the thought process that leads to an evolutionary cosmology**

**Black holes**

- There is no reason to believe that the laws of physics change radically the instant that any particle crosses a gravitational event horizon of the type that is likely to form in our universe. This means that the inverse square law of gravity will continue to apply as the horizon is crossed.
- What does happen is that space becomes "time like" and unidirectional (on the absence of any interactions) as a particle heads towards the theoretical "singularity".
- Time becomes "space like" in that it becomes multidimensional and potentially oscillatory as the gravitational field gradient increases.
- Under an inverse square law the energy released by every reduction of 50% in the radius of a thin shell of constant mass is a constant. This tends to infinity as the radius approaches zero.
- The process of collapse in the absence of interactions takes a finite time but interactions between particles and notably the presence of angular momentum will extend the longevity of this process of collapse.
- As the gravitational field and gradients increase without limit time "expands" in all directions

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### Matter

- All matter particles come in two forms, these are normal matter and antimatter
- An antimatter particle is identical to a matter particle with ALL its properties reversed ie the antimatter pariicle of a necatively charged electron is a positively charged positron.
- When a matter particle meets and interacts with an antimatter particle of the same type the result is pure energy notably a pair of photons for low energy interactions
- Our universe is dominated by normal matter with one exception. The exception are the Neutrinos who are all antineutrinos because all the "weak interaction" particle interactions that produce neutrinos produce antineutrinos.
- High energy particle interactions can produce new particles but these are always produced in pairs one matter and one antimatter.
- The reason for the imbalance between matter and antimatter in our universe is as yet unexplained except that there is a very slight imbalance between matter and antimatter in certain high energy interactions and it is assumed that at the instant of the 'big bang" equal quantities of matter and antimatter are produced.
- A matter particle travelling with a particular energy in a particular direction can be converted into an antimatter particle travelling backwards through time in the opposite direction. That is all the properties are reversed including the flow of time and collapse to a singularity to expansion from a singularity.

### Dimensionality

We are so used to our four dimensional universe with three dimensions of space and one of time it I’d very difficult to consider anything else but mathematicians and theoretical physicists think very differently. In a mathematical sense dimensions are merely convenient constructs to describe linked degrees of freedom for things to change this could also include oscillatory processes in which dimensions are continually recycling or even taking on a waveform as on wave packets.

String theorists talk of many more dimensions than the usual four. Recycling dimensions are usually described in terms of complex numbers. As is quantum theory

### Wave Particle Duality

The concept of particles simplifies the mathematics of interactions greatly and is therefore very useful but it is clear that all particles and even marger groupings can show wave like properties. The big question is which “if any” is fundamental. There is

This familiar aspect of

### Potentially Useful analogies

Note These are some facts from other scientific and technological areas that I feel may be useful when it comes to understanding cosmology, gravitation and quantum theory may be unified in a realistic way.

- That implies that a gravitationally collapsing universe could be converted into an expanding universe by going from being matter dominated to antimatter dominated and the laws of thermodynamics would bot be violated

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